60 Interesting Facts About Volcanoes

Facts About Volcanoes: Volcanoes are special types of mountains through which hot and molten rocks, ash and gas can come out of the interior of the earth. It is a geographical process. Hot air, water vapor, molten rock, mud, ash, gas come out with great speed through some cracks or holes. All these emitted substances come into contact with the cool air of the earth's surface and cool down quickly to form a solid, some of which slowly accumulate around the cracks and take on a conical shape. Then it is called "volcano". Volcanic discharge from a volcano is called an eruption. Volcanoes are the mouths or eruptions that form outside the volcano. About 80 volcanoes erupt each year.

There are currently about half a thousand active or living volcanoes on Earth. Volcanoes that have no chance of erupting are called dead or extinguished volcanoes. Also, volcanoes that are not currently active, but may erupt in the future, are called latent volcanoes.

Eruptions can occur if cracks appear in the crust, if there are any weak pores in the crust, or if the underground liquid rock and pressure increase. Volcanic eruptions can cause clouds of ash and gaseous matter to form in the sky. Volcanoes can also form in the middle of the ocean. The liquid rock stored inside the earth is called magma, and the liquid rock that comes out of the earth's surface is called lava.

60 Interesting Facts About Volcanoes

Mind Blowing Facts About Volcanoes

  • Over 20% of the earth’s active volcanoes are underwater.
  • 10% of the earth’s active volcanoes can be found in Japan.
  • The word “volcano” comes from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
  • The danger area around a volcano covers about a 20-mile radius.
  • Volcanic eruptions can send ash up to 30 kilometers into the air.
  • There are approximately 10 to 20 volcanic eruptions per day on Earth.
  • Approximately 1,900 volcanoes on Earth are active and likely to erupt.
  • Most volcanoes happen on fault lines, or cracks in the Earth’s surface.
  • Lava from volcanoes can reach temperatures of 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Pompeii was an ancient city that was completely buried in ash and lava.

Facts About Volcanoes for Kids

  • The volcanic pumice rock is the only known rock that can float in water.
  • At 4,169m tall, the world’s largest active volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii.
  • Volcanoes spew out ash and toxic gases, as well as lava and lava boulders.
  • The word volcano originates from the name of the Roman god of fire, ‘vulcan’.
  • Italy is the European country with the most active volcanos, it has 14 in total.
  • Mount Etna in Sicily (Italy) is Europe’s largest active volcano at 3,329 m high.
  • 350 million people in the world live within the danger range of an active volcano.
  • Mount Erebus is the largest active volcano in Antarctica with its peak reaching 3,794.
  • Mount Damavand a stratovolcano in Iran is the largest volcano in Asia standing at 5,610 m.
  • Most of the earth’s volcanoes are in the Pacific Ocean, in an area called the Ring of Fire.

Cool Facts About Volcanoes

  • An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.
  • Volcanoes are also found over mantle plumes which are very hot areas of rock inside the Earth.
  • The only rock in the world that can float in water is a volcanic stone, known as a pumice stone.
  • Indonesia has the most active volcanoes in the world and remains one of the most dangerous areas.
  • A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s surface from which magma, gas, and ash can erupt and escape.
  • There are approximately 1,500 active volcanos on Earth, and most are found at the bottom of the ocean.
  • Large volcanic eruptions can reflect solar radiation and lower the Earth’s temperature by several degrees.
  • Magma is hot liquid rock inside a volcano. Once magma leaves the volcano and erupts to the surface it is called lava.
  • There are three different types of volcanoes – Strato (Composite), Shield (these are the largest volcanoes) and Dome.
  • The internal temperature of a volcano can reach 1000ºC but the lava can reach up to 1200ºC when it reaches the surface.

Historical Facts About Volcanoes

  • The Ring of Fire is a 40,000km horseshoe-shaped area in the Pacific Ocean and is home to 90% of all volcanoes on Earth.
  • There is an area in the Pacific Ocean known as the Ring of Fire because most of the planet’s volcanoes are concentrated there.
  • The soil in the areas near volcanoes is very rich and fertile, for this reason, there are people who build their houses next to volcanoes.
  • In 79 A.D, Mount Vesuvius erupted and devastated the town on Pompeii in Italy. The ash preserved the town and the remains of the people in it.
  • A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur.
  • Volcanoes are most commonly found on tectonic plate boundaries. Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth’s surface that fit together like a jigsaw.
  • Soil near volcanoes is rich and fertile due to the volcanic ash that settles there. Because of this, many choose to farm on the land on and near volcanoes.
  • There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world. More than half of these volcanoes are part of the "Ring of Fire," a region that encircles the Pacific Ocean.
  • The most deadly eruptions have occurred in Indonesia, with tens of thousands of lives lost to starvation, tsunami (as a result of the eruption), ash flows, and mudflows.
  • In 1883, Krakatoa in Southeast Asia erupted. It released 200 megatons of energy, which is equivalent to 15,000 nuclear bombs. It is the loudest sound ever reported in history.

Scary Facts About Volcanoes

  • There are about 1,900 active volcanoes on the earth. This means they have erupted recently or they might erupt. Some volcanoes are extinct. Over 80 volcanoes have been found in the ocean.
  • The sound of an eruption volcano can be quiet and hissing or explosive and booming. The loud cracks travel hundreds of miles and do the most damage, including hearing loss and broken glass.
  • Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be harsh, acidic, gritty, glassy and smelly. The ash can cause damage to the lungs of older people, babies and people with respiratory problems.
  • Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington, but the greatest chance of eruptions near areas where many people live is in Hawaii and Alaska.
  • More than 80% of the earth's surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth's atmosphere.
  • In an eruption, gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods.
  • Volcanic lightning occurs mostly within the cloud of ash during an eruption, and is created by the friction of the ash rushing to the surface. Roughly 200 accounts of this lightning have been witnessed live.
  • Volcanoes are not just found on the Earth’s surface. There are many more volcanoes on the ocean floor than on land, in fact, ¾ of all volcanoes are underwater. There are even volcanoes under ice caps as can be found in Iceland.
  • Lava can reach temperatures as hot as 1,250℃. Lava may spurt up if there is pressure or simply flow out of the vent. The hotter and thinner the lava, the farther it will flow. When it stops flowing it hardens into rock called igneous rock.

Fun Facts About Volcanoes for Kids

  • Mauna Loa in Hawaii (Pacific Ocean) is the world’s largest active shield volcano standing at 4,170 m high. Mauna Kea also in Hawaii is a taller volcano with a height of 4,207 m but currently is dormant. Mauna has not erupted since 2460 BC.
  • Volcanoes form on either destructive plate boundaries or constructive plate boundaries. On a constructive plate boundary, also called a divergent plate margin, plates move apart. A volcano is formed as magma wells up to fill the gap and forms a new crust.
  • Volcanoes are classified as active, dormant, or extinct. Active volcanoes experience regular activity, dormant means there hasn’t been recent activity but it may still erupt, and extinct indicates that the volcano is inactive and it is highly unlikely to ever erupt again.
  • Volcanoes can trigger tsunamis, floods, earthquakes, pyroclastic flow, mudflows, lava flows, ash, avalanches, and poisonous gas. They can cause a lot of damage and destroy buildings, kill and injure people, destroy forests, ruin crops, cause illness, and poison lakes and rivers.
  • A volcano has three categories to fall under: Extinct (was a volcano but will never erupt again or is not expected), Dormant (has not erupted in thousands of years but is likely to erupt again), Active (has the potential to erupt at any stage or has erupted since the last ice age).
  • Large eruptions can block the sun’s radiation and drop temperatures on Earth. In 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines ejected sulphur dioxide which formed a haze of sulphuric acid. This prevented the normal amount of sunlight from reaching Earth and lowered global temperatures by 0.5℃.
  • On destructive plate boundaries, also called convergent, an oceanic and continental plate move together. The denser oceanic plate is forced under the lighter continental plate and this friction causes the oceanic plate to melt. Magma rises up through the cracks and erupts onto the surface.
  • Volcanoes can be a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the type, amount, and thickness of lava that erupts and the way it erupts. Shield volcanoes are flat and large, composite volcanoes are tall and steep, cinder cones are oval-shaped with a deep mound, and calderas are big and round like a cauldron.

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